Cross-Cultural Contacts

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One of the rising fields in the History is World History. The formation of contacts among all religious convictions of the world and its societies brought about the contemporary period of world history. In the past eras, Asian and European people commonly interacted and intermingled with one another. These interactions brought about revolution in the entire world history, aiding the development and the spread of thoughts, beliefs, tenets, and religions. The two letters talk about the spread of Christianity to various parts and cultures. The letters focus largely on the spread of Christianity beyond its homeland. Accordingly, the letters have much to tell about the process of conversion and how missionaries went about it. Authors of the letters give clear strategies that are to be employed in order to convince the pagans to abandon idols and adopt Christianity. They identify distinctive forms of conversion, encounter, and conciliation that might emerge from cross-cultural interactions. In doing so, they elucidate the wider historical context of interactions between Europeans and Asians in pre-modern times.
The letters illustrate the most important cross-cultural inspirations that changed Asia and Europe in pre-modern period. These developments started with the prehistoric Silk Road that connected the Roman Empire with China and the spread of religions of the world. Early Christians were faced with intermittent persecutions from Roman leaders. In the early centuries, Roman officials launched a series of crusades to get rid of Christianity as most Christians failed to observe state cults that recognized emperors as divine beings. Moreover, royal authorities regarded Christianity as a threat to the society owing to the zealous missionaries, who condemned other religions, and this sometimes led to violence. All the same, the missionaries made maximum use of road networks in Roman Empire to spread their message all over the Roman Empire and the Mediterranean basin. The young religion travelled the trade routes and found followers beyond the Mediterranean basin. It spread to Mesopotamia and Iran and continued spreading as far as India. In southwest Asia, a large number of individuals were also converted to Christianity.
Through the tireless activities of Pope and his contributions to the Roman Mission, the Ecclesiastical was able to bring pagans into close communion and giving to this clerical its society. Moreover, the English were later used to spread Christianity back to the continent, igniting a construction of faith for the Germans and Carolingian empires. Lastly, in the current centuries, Christianity has been spread to almost all parts of the world. The trigger that started with a vision of a Bishop of Rome through the grace of the Lord and the efforts of other followers in Christian account would have an insightful bearing on Christianity all through the history.
Pope Gregory and Bishop Daniel had strategies and correspondences. Through their correspondences with missionaries, their strategies with regard to how pagans were to be handled were distinct. Gregory sought conversion to come about through inspiration and mollification, working with the established order. In his letters sent to Mellitus, Gregory wrote that the temples were not to be destroyed, but if they were in a suitable condition, they were to be instead converted into churches for worshiping the true almighty God. He also provided suggestions on the organization of the new church. Gregory, in his letter had indicated that he wanted peace to prevail so as to attract many converts. According to him, difference in custom was not prejudicial to the Holy Church as long as there was union in the conviction. Therefore, he encouraged Augustine to become accustomed to the church’s formalities to local situations.
Similarly, Bishop Daniel wanted the missionaries to convert the pagans slowly through letting them know that the idols were not the real God. By being educated slowly, the pagans would eventually turn into Christians. Letters were the main form of communication during this era. However, in the pre-modern period, several forms of communication had emerged. The conversion of pagans in the two letters might imply the adoption of civilization in pre-modern era due to advent of technology. Initially, the west was dominant in international trade routes and establishment of settlements in Asia and other parts of the world. Agriculture, commercial, religious, and political developments altered the internal structure of the west. Generally, a scientific revolution reshaped western culture. Eventually, this revolution spread to other parts of the world just like Christianity did. In the process of undergoing the revolution, people slowly adopted new technologies because they understood their importance and benefits. In the same way, Bishop Daniel advocated that pagans had to be assimilated into Christianity by letting them see the bad side of worshipping idols, thus adopting Christianity.
In general, Christians of the present day can learn a lesson for missionary strategies from Pope Gregory and Bishop Daniel and their rigorous plans to reach the pagans. As observed earlier, Gregory felt that his missionary obligations were of prime importance to the apostolic office. He had a true heart for the lost. He wanted to go to see that the pagans were converted. While in Rome, he dedicated much of his effort to supporting the plans to win the souls of pagans for the sake of the Lord. Using today’s Christian vernacular, Gregory and Daniel were the anointed servants of God. Even though the demands of their responsibilities could have easily wasted their time and energy, they were able to see beyond ecclesiastical structures of the day, to see what was ahead in the land of the pagans. They were, in the factual sense, visionaries.
Travelling of the missionaries in their attempt to convert pagans can be equaled to travelling of the merchants from one end of Eurasia to the other through the sea or roads. Chinese and Asian nomadic persons normally dominated the long distance trade along the China-Bactria caravan routes. Once the merchandise reached Palmyra, it exchanged hands with the Roman subjects, mostly Greeks and Armenians. As it happened, long distance trade led to cross-cultural contacts in Eurasia during the pre-modern period. It also stimulated the local economies and the spread of Christianity, which travelled through the same trade routes. Merchants and missionaries carried their values, religious convictions, and beliefs to distant territories. This is how Christianity was able to spread and flourish in the Mediterranean basin, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Spain, and other parts of the world. Furthermore, commercial interactions stimulated cultural and biological contacts, some of which had great effects on classical societies.
In his letter to his proselytizers in England, Gregory advocated that the freshly transformed Anglo-Saxons must be inspired to construct small outbuildings, or tabernacles, in association with the Christian centenaries. In his mind, it appeared that Pope Gregory related these constructions with Jewish commemoration of Sukkot, thus it reflected a missionary approach modeled on both: the Israelites and on his own evangelizing method toward Roman Jews. The directives of Gregory are deliberated in view of historic literature and archaeological substantiation, which suggest that tabernacles were definitely built in England during the transformation era, probably changed in order to improve the pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon customary edifices.
In the contemporary world, as in past historical times, developments core to individual societies have facilitated the shaping of experiences of people around the world. However, throughout the old times, cross-cultural interactions have also influenced lives and prosperities across the border lines of societies and traditional regions. Without a doubt, they have often affected presumably internal progresses. As historians look at the past from comprehensive, virtual, and global viewpoints, they ought to take into consideration the roles of cross-cultural interaction in shaping the common history of the world. Today, local church leaders ought to have an idea of how societies of the world who are still nonbelievers should be made to understand and believe in Christ. Although this is the ultimate time of life for missionary doings ever seen, still countless Christians, and particularly the front-runners, fail to see the necessity to bring Christ to the lost countries of the planet. Not only do these church leaders require having a feeling for the pagans, but also they ought to work hard in order to sustain the evangelists who travel worldwide spreading the gospel. Gregory and Daniel did this, and God worked tremendously through their exertions. Whether one is called to stay or go, Gregory’s as well as Daniel’s case studies demonstrate to Christians that they are duty-bound to have consideration for the pagans in every part of the globe, and do all that is required to bring them back to God.

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