Changing the Face of Medicine

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The topicality of the research is aimed at marking out an importance of public health defining its branches, experts, research workers, medical institutions, supply organizations within present-day society and its demands. The subject matter of the research work is an estimate analysis of Sara Josephine Baker’s contribution to the United States public health in the early 20th century. The purpose of the research is to analyze the peculiarities of postwar period and its influence on the higher mortality rate among children (especially newborns).

The aim is reached through the following tasks:

1. to analyze modern approaches to the public health supply;

2. to single out Dr. S. Josephine Baker’s contribution to the New York City wholesome welfare;

3. to appraise the situation of the up-to-date public health in the USA.

The research may be conducted in several ways and lead to the outcome of several perspectives. The need for the study engages a disciplined research of the society’s comprehension of the Public Health Program.

With the outbreak of the epidemiological shift and the great amount of contagious diseases diminishing throughout the 20th century, public health started to pay great attention to chronic diseases such as cancer and heart failure. Public Health is a unique science of securing and improving the health of the society through education, adhering to healthy lifestyles, and research of illness and injury prevention. Public health experts analyze the affect of genetics on health in order to create programs that protect social health. Public health officials establish educational programs, develop policies, regulate health systems, and conduct researches in order to prevent serious amplifications (Gale, 2006).

Previous researches in developed countries have showed a decreasing infant mortality rate by means of preventative assets. As an example, in the United States public worker Dr. S. Josephine Baker established a great amount of agencies and programs to help poor families in the New York City bring up their children healthy and sound. Sara Josephine Baker (1873 – 1945) was an American physician famous for contributing to public health. In 1917, Sara Baker noted that newborns in the United States had a higher rate of mortality than fighters in World War I, drawing considerable attention to her matter (Morantz-Sanchez, 2008). Flux was a cause of most deaths since parental negligence and the lack of sanitary were often indirectly to blame (Baker, 2008). Baker also discovered an infant formula made out of calcium carbonate, water, lactose, and milk that enabled parents to have a job, so they could supply their families in a proper way.

Sara Baker also aided in the prevention of infant ablepsy. To prevent ablepsy, babies were given eye-drops of nitrated silver. Baker worked to be sure every school had its own physician or nurse and that children were periodically tested for diseases such as trachoma. The system worked so perfectly that diseases ceased to exist. A great number of governmental agencies, departments, and committees were created because of Baker’s work concerning the Federal Children's Bureau and Public Health Services. So, then Josephine Baker became the first woman to be a professional plenipotentiary in the League of Nations when representing the United States in the Health Committee.

The practical significance consists in the possibility of using research results while working on health insurance programs and outpatient care.

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