Manufacturing

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Computing technology forms the basis for implementation of roles within many industries. The application of computing technology in manufacturing is known as Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), which entails the use of computer interface programs with hardware and software for the accomplishment of a manufacturing process. This implies that CAM is a form of automation of all processes within industries (Todd, Allen, & Alting 1994, p. 200). There are various examples of automation programs that are involved the application of computer programs in manufacturing. These include information technology, which is a process of creation, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information to aid in procedures for production of goods and services. The other automation program is the Computer Aided Manufacturing, which is the process of using computer interface programs for the production planning and control. This may involve the use of numerically aided machines and automated devices, like the Robots. On the other hand, Robots are automated systems for the production of goods as a substitute to the human operator. This involves the application of automated equipment as a subsidy to the human labour (Arpa 1993, pp. 130-150).

Consequently, Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) are complex systems that are automated for use with numerically controlled machines for performance of similar tasks in different locations. The overall role of automation of production within industries through application of Computer interface programs for the manufacture of goods is reduced time for implementation of the tasks, reduced chances of human error and quality production due to the variability elements relayed by the use of computer interface programs. Moreover, the use of computer programs in manufacturing increases flexibility of processes, reduces the costs of human labour, and makes up for the labour shortage (Bingham 1998, pp. 50-70). An insight into the impact of application of computer interface programs in manufacturing and the implications therein forms the essence of this paper.

Literature Review

The conventional system of operations in the field of manufacturing involved the use of manual systems, in which the human brain formed the source of designing and execution of processes within industries. This mode of operation was marked with slow processes and consequent errors emanating from human errors. This implied that the conventional mode of carrying out processes reduced the profitability due to the cost of human labour. Consequently, the process of decision making within industries was marked with many difficulties due to lack of complete programs for execution of datum. This gave wrong discourses, especially in discretion processes, leading to the poor forms of interpretation of critical times in the running of business industries. On the other hand, projects, which formed the basis of operations within manufacturing industries, were carried out on manual platforms. This meant that there was vulnerability to poor execution of projects due to the intensive labour requirements placed by human procedures (Prencipe, Davies, & Hobday 2003, pp. 100-140).

The history of manufacturing engineering is known to have taken root in the 18th century in the USA and the UK. However, the process of application of computer interface programs in manufacturing engineering is largely attributed to the Venice Arsenal in the Middle East years before the industrial revolution took to stage. Moreover, full involvement of computer interface programs in manufacturing is attributed to the year 1946 with the manufacture of the first computers. This was the foundation for automation of the process of manufacturing, in which some industries, like the steel industry, coined the term fabrication to refer to all processes of conversion of the steel ores into productive forms. The current systems of automation of manufacturing includes the involvement of measurable parameters spanning from the production rate, work in process as an inventory, the total percentage of defective elements in manufacturing, and the rate per unit of time delivery. Consequently, the contemporary consideration of manufacturing involves the use of parameters like production volumes and total cost for implementation of the project (Gibson, Rosen, & Stucker 2010, pp. 300-310). This implies that with the contemporary application of integrated database systems in manufacturing, there has been improved production, since such processes involve the application of Computer aided designs and Computer Aided manufacture for both the Interactive Design workstation and automated factories respectively.

This implies that there has been a shift from the conventional systems of manual control of operations in the field of manufacture to the computer interface programs, courtesy of prototyping models of design, like CAD and CAM technologies. The trend is expected to advance with the continued innovation of computer technology. Such advances are geared towards achievement of the measurable parameters of production, which may include efficiency, time pre unit production, and reliability (Bingham 1998, pp. 30-50).

Methodology

The basic principle behind rapid prototyping lies in the additive production processes, as opposed to subtractive processes, like milling and grinding. The commercial process of prototyping involves fabrication of the parts of the product by deposition of layers in two-dimensional planes. The deposition layers are placed in contours with the X plane and the Y plane to achieve the essence of two-dimensional proportions. Consequently, single layers are stacked up on the upper side of each part of the original plane to generate a third plane, the Z plane. This implies that the third plane is a result of stacking out the single layers on top of each other. This also implies that the prototypes are perfect on the X-Y plane, but marked with a stair-stepping effect in the third plane. In this regard, the view of the prototype is exact in the X-Y plane, but contains a stair-stepping view along the Z-plane. By consideration, if the model were deposited using fine layers, it would look as if it were original. This signifies that deposition of smaller Z-stepping layers provides an original outlook of the model (Helvajian 1997, pp. 120-140).

The process of Rapid prototyping is classifiable into two basic process steps, which include “generation of mathematical layer information” and “generation of a physical layer model.” They are illustrated in the figure below.

It is evident from the diagram that the process begins with a fundamental 3-dimentional modelling and then the STL file through the process of tessellation of the geometric 3-dimentional model. The tessellation process involves approximation of the CAD model using a series of triangular shapes. This is followed by the listing of the coordinates of the vertices of triangles and their coordinate systems. The facet deviations are used to determine the size of the triangles, in which there is display of errors emanating from the structure of the chords.  The structure of chords might change due to defects like flip triangles, which emanate from change of the planes, missing facets due to the omission errors, and overlapping facets resulting from the change of plane positions. Consequently, errors might emanate from the dangling of edges due to the poor placement of the original facets. This might result in the change of the faces of the planes with poor tessellation processes that follow (Biggs, Hoffman, & Shepard 2002, pp. 24-80).

 In this regard, evaluation of errors allows for the use of defect free STL files that act as input codes for datum to the system software. At this point, the part deposition process assumes putting factors like quality, time, and cost into consideration, since it allows for elimination of errors. This implies that the process of part deposition is selective to such a level that it allows for consideration of factors like time, cost, and quality, thus eliminating the essence of human error. Once part deposition is decided, the thickness of the slice is also selected. This means that the tessellated model is sliced into different sizes, while the datum generated is stored in formats like the “Common Layer Interface” (CLI). This step then allows for the generation of the physical model and, then, the software for operating the RP generates paths for scanning using a laser beam. These paths for laser scanning form the deposition paths, especially in processes like “Fused Deposition Modelling”. Different processes harbour different steps for formation of the laser-scanning paths, which depend on the principle of deposition applicable. The information computed is then used in the deposition of the parts on every layer of the RP system stage (Weik 2000, p. 268).

Data Analysis

The generative manufacturing process results into the synthesis of all the three states of matter. These include the solid state, the liquid state, and the gaseous state. Consequently, there might be intermediates in the products, e.g., pastes. The paste product is an intermediate form between the solid and the liquid forms of matter. The solid state is generated as a form of wires resulting from the process of melting down of ore components of the metal. Re-solidification results into the generation of the wire through a “fused layer modelling ballistic part manufacturing”. In addition, the solid part of the generative manufacturing process leads to the generation of a single- or multi-component powder and a foil. Consequently, the RP process generates the paste as an intermediate product of both the solid and the liquid states. The paste is the result of the process of polymerization, linking up the long chain carbon atoms to form complex chained atoms in conjugation (Graf 1999, pp. 120-149).

The liquid component of the RP process results from the process of polymerization, which differs from the intermediate paste component. As much as the former uses the long chain mode of conjugation, the latter uses heat through a process commonly referred to as thermal conjugation. Consequently, the gaseous component of the RP process is the result of the Chemical reaction LCVD. The components of the RP process are in varied states of matter since they bear varied functions after the manufacturing process. The solids are used as cutting edges since they have strong covalent forces of attraction. On the other hand, the paste components are essential in the generation of solid foils, which are used in chemical reactions like combustion. On the other hand, the liquids are vital since they are reagents for carrying out chemical operations, acting for example as solvents. For instance, Furan is an important liquid generated for the use as a solvent. On the other hand, gases are vital in the process of combustion and determination of natural gaseous cycles, which is essential in the determination of the capabilities of an ecosystem to hold life (Gibson, Rosen, & Stucker 2010, p. 153).

It is evident that the tessellation process results in the elimination of errors, which were a result of the manual coding system. This implies that prototyping as a form of incorporation of computer interface programs in the manufacturing process reduces the margin of errors. Consequently, the system allows for timely implementation of tasks, since the time taken in the RP process is lower than carrying out manual processes. On the other hand, defect-free STL files lead to the generation of desired results with the probable states of matter. This implies that the conventional use of manual systems in the manufacturing process could not relay the desired states of matter amid the constraints of conversion processes. This means that there is elucidation of variety in the use of computer interface programs as opposed to conventional manual programs. In this breath, the variety allows for the generation of products with varied uses. The three states of matter products are also a source of intermediates, which relieve the essence of wastage of raw materials. This leads to increased profitability because of reduced costs of human labour (Prencipe, Davies, & Hobday 2003, p. 100).

Consequently, Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) are complex systems that are automated for use with numerically controlled machines for performance of similar tasks in different locations. This ensures a form of multitasking system, which saves on the time of implementation of the tasks of the manufacturing process. This system also allows for control of all the processes in a single location since the results are relayed on a computer machine. This allows for the reduced costs of extra human labour as the processes could be monitored by a single end user on a computer interface program. This is also a form of increased efficiency, as errors could be detected and relayed while the vulnerability is still within reach (Helvajian 1997, p. 23).

Results

 The prototyping process is essential in the evaluation of errors, which allows for the use of defect-free STL files that act as input codes for datum in the system software. The deposition process takes into account factors like quality, time, and cost as a form of elimination of errors. Tessellation process results in the sizing of the models, while the RP process gives rise to different states of matter, which span the solid, the liquid, and the gaseous states. There is also the presence of intermediates, like the paste, which results from the polymerization process as an intermediate product of the transition between the solid and the liquid.  This implies that the tessellated model is sliced into different sizes, while the datum generated is stored in formats like the “Common Layer Interface (CLI) (Arpa 1993, p. 153)

Discussions

The overall process of prototyping through involvement of the computer interface programs into the manufacturing process has a major impact on increased profitability as a result of the reduced time for implementation of the procedures. In addition, the automated computer interface program reduces the time of implementation of the process. Consequently, profitability comes from substituting the increased cost of human labour. In this respect, a single computer program has the capability of performing different functions that could need the labour of several employees. This reduces the cost of hiring employees, which results in increased profitability as a result of reduced costs of production. On the other hand, the computer interface programs have led to more efficient production, since they allow for closer monitoring of procedures. For example, the computer program can allow for monitoring of different locations using a single chip (Gibson, Rosen, & Stucker 2010, p. 142).

The other impact of prototyping due to the use of computer interface programs in manufacturing processes is that it allows for the elimination of errors. Overall, the computer interface program allows for relaying of errors since the system is designed in a way that there is prior detection of errors in a single process before allowing the preceding process. This ensures that errors are eliminated before the vulnerability is evident. Moreover, prototyping allows for varied results, which gives room for maximization of the products in the manufacturing process. For instance, all the states of matter are relayed in an additive process, which may involve polymerization for the generation of pastes. Such products allow for easier use, since different states of matter are endowed with different functions. For instance, the liquid products are used as solvents; the solid products are used in the conductivity processes, while the gaseous products are used in the processes of combustion and control of natural gaseous cycles. This is essential in determining the capabilities of ecosystems in supporting life (Graf 1999, p. 140).

Conclusion

Computing technology is a form of carrying out manufacturing processes through prototyping. It is a form of application of computing technology in manufacturing known as Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), which entails the use of computer interface programs with hardware and software for the accomplishment of a manufacturing goal. This implies that CAM is a form of automation of all processes within industries (Weik 2000, p. 58). The possible examples of computer manufacturing programs are information technology, robots, and automation programs. Information technology is a process of creation, storage retrieval, and dissemination of information to aid the retrieval of information for the production of goods and services. The other automation program is the Computer Aided Manufacturing, which is the process of using computer interface programs for the production planning and control. This may involve the use of numerically aided machines and automated devices, like the Robots. On the other hand, Robots are automated systems for the production of goods acting as a substitute to the human operator. This involves the application of automated equipment as a subsidy to the human labour. The overall process of prototyping results in the best achievable results since there are varied products. Consequently, this process is a form of elucidation of profitability within the manufacturing industry as opposed to the human labour (Helvajian 1997, p. 123).

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